Bleeding from limb injuries
In a young adult in a Rugby setting, it is unlikely we will see blood loss from a limb injury that is sufficient to cause haemorrhagic shock. However, fractures of the thigh bone (femur) have occasionally been seen in Rugby and this can cause about 1-1.5 litres of bleeding into the thigh.
Open fractures (where sharp pieces of bone stick out through the skin) can be a cause of external bleeding but this is rarely significant.
Refer to the limb injury chapter for further explanation.